Windows 8 – When Worlds Collide

So, I was able to get my hands on the final release version of Windows 8 the other day (thanks to the TechNet subscription I get through work), and in order to give it a proper look-see, I decided to install it on my computer using my real hardware, but also use a virtual hard drive. This would save me from the troubles of dual-booting (and potentially screwing up my existing Windows 7 installation), while still letting me run on “real” hardware (unlike a virtual machine).

Fortunately this was really easy (this guide from Scott Hanselman is how I did it), and it allowed me to not only give Windows 8 a proper test drive, but to do so using my dual-monitor setup.

It is worth nothing that I was not going into this blind – I’d taken a look at the Windows 8 Consumer Preview before, both in a virtual machine and on my netbook. (I had to give up on the netbook because Windows 8’s new UI requires a higher vertical resolution than my little old 10″ screen can provide).

Windows 8 – First Impressions

The setup is very familiar – the same basic “installing Windows” experience we’ve had since Vista, I believe. But it goes by very smoothly, with all the questions up-front, and it doesn’t take forever (which is always nice). In fact, the actual initial “installation” went by surprisingly fast – although after a reboot there’s still more “setting up” to be done. Still, a good start.

windows 8 boot loaderSince I was dual booting (sort-of), Windows 8 detected this and installed a very nice boot loader/OS-chooser thing. It’s graphical, which is neat, and very well designed – simple and to the point. However, this screen doesn’t appear right away – it seems like Windows 8 pre-loads itself, and only later does it show you this screen. This means that you have to wait a while before you can choose your OS. Presumably this is done because Windows 8 is set as the default OS so it just starts pre-loading it, assuming that 90% of the time you’re just going to boot into that.

Interestingly, if you change the default OS, the boot loader/OS-chooser changes as well. I changed mine back to Windows 7 as the default, and after I did, it showed the more traditional text-based Windows 7 OS chooser, which appears immediately after the BIOS POST stuff is done. So, apparently you only get this neat screen if you keep Windows 8 as your default OS.

The rest of the setup was pretty simple – enter your email address as your login and it’ll use your Microsoft account (if you have one). One of the potentially neat features of Windows 8 is how your user account is now sort of online, so if you switch computers some of your settings will come with you. I only have the one computer, so I wasn’t able to try this out, but it has some potential. Also, since your Windows login is tied to an online account (and thus, to your email address), recovering your password if you forget it is a bit easier than it ever used to be on a PC before. So that’s nice.

Once things booted up, I was greeted with this setup:

windows 8 on dual monitors

Windows 8 dual monitor screen capture

As you can see, the new Windows 8 UI is on the main screen, while you can see the old Windows desktop peeking through on my 2nd monitor.

At this point we’re going to need to address something – during development, this new UI style was code-named “Metro.” But just a few weeks ago, Microsoft announced that this is not going to be the final name for it – but they haven’t given us what the final name is going to be yet. So, in the interest of brevity, whenever you see “Metro” in this post, just read it as “the UI formerly known as Metro” or whatever pleases your fancy. Perhaps when they finally announce the real name I’ll come back and change it here.

ANYWAY – the new Metro UI, based on tiles, is your new Start page. If you’ve used Office 2010, you’ve seen something like this before – it’s what is called “Backstage View” in Office 2010 – and it’s what happens when you click the “File” menu/tab in most Office 2010 apps.

Windows 8 start page

Of course, it’s a bit more complex than that, but this is a good way to think of it to begin with. The tiles are interactive, and you can drag & drop them all over the place as you’d expect. The tiles “flow” from one column to the next, in a left-to-right order, meaning that you can’t leave any gaps on the column to the left – it automatically fills with tiles from the next column over. At least, it did for the first 2 columns. The 3rd  and 4th columns seem to be all on their own, and this is presumably likewise with subsequent columns on additional screens (which would appear to the right, and not down, as you might think – more on that odd convention later).

Native Metro apps can have double-width rectangular tiles, while the tiles that represent shortcuts to regular Windows programs will only have the square tiles.

mouse help icon

You’re going to see a lot of useless icons like this.

Since this new Start page/view replaces the old Start menu, this is where you will find every icon/shortcut on your computer. That is to say, if you had an icon anywhere on your Start menu, it will be a tile here on this new Start page instead.

UPDATE: As it turns out, the new Start page actually is more like your “most recently used” items list, as opposed to “All Programs.” Only some shortcuts show up here by default to start with. The rest can be found under “All Apps,” which shows them all in one giant grid as I described here (but with slightly smaller icons).

This is a bit of a design flaw if you ask me – there’s not really any way to organize tiles other than by putting them in columns and spreading them across different pages (the Start page scrolls horizontally). There are no folders or sub-folders like you might be used to from the old Start menu. And if you install any old-style programs, your Start page will inevitably become cluttered with useless shortcuts that you never use.

While it’s easy enough to delete these, it is a bit awkward. And since the tiles on the Start screen are bigger than icons on the old Start menu, this sort of clutter is much more noticeable.

The Traditional Windows Desktop is Still Here

desktop tile shortcutFortunately, it is super-easy to switch to the traditional Windows desktop. On my computer in particular the desktop was still visible on my 2nd monitor (the Metro start page only covers one screen), and there’s a handy (and large!) shortcut for it right on the Start page.

Once you’ve switched to the traditional desktop, you don’t ever have to see the Metro UI again, unless you click where the Start menu button used to be, or press the Windows button on your keyboard.

As for how things work in the traditional desktop, well… they work just like you’d expect them to. It’s just the same desktop we’ve always had, but better. If these were the only changes in Windows 8, you’d be seeing nothing but praise.

It’s great that the taskbar now appears on all of your monitors (instead of just one), and the “ribbon” type UI in Explorer is kind of neat. Also, the new file copy dialogs are pretty sweet, with the extra info they can give you, as well as the better prompts that appear when you copy files with the same name.

In general, the traditional desktop UI is a bit more… well, square-ish, for lack of a better word. There is a bit of metro-ish UI inspiration here and there, and I sometimes feel like going back to a sharp-edged square UI is a step backwards (remember when having curved edges to a window was a big deal?), but otherwise is it just fine, no real surprises to speak of.

The UI Formerly Known as Metro

OK, I know you’ve probably been waiting for this part – so let’s talk about Metro.

The whole Metro UI is obviously very much inspired by the concept of touch – you see references to it everywhere.

windows 8's touch mentality

How do I “tap” with a mouse?

Having spent a good deal of time doing tech support for people, I can tell you right now that the Metro UI is going to confuse a LOT of people. There is a heck of a lot to get used to here, especially if you are using it on a PC without a touch screen (as most people will be).

Another thing that is inevitably going to trip a lot of people up is that Metro apps do not have a close button, and in many cases they don’t even have a “back” button, either. There literally is no way to “exit” the application in the traditional sense; and this is by design.

Metro apps are completely suspended when they are in the background, meaning they do not use any CPU time, so there technically is no reason to ever close them. This is much like how on iOS once you open an app, it is still “open” in the background when you switch to other apps, and remains open until you do a hard-shutdown of the device (or press & hold the “home” button to show running apps, then touch & hold the app’s icon to make them shake and have a red “x”, which is how you can actually force them to close).

(There are ways to close Metro apps, obviously, but they are not at all intuitive – probably because they are meant to not be necessary in normal use.)

This… takes some getting used to. I admit I found myself in a Metro settings screen and wanted to go “back” out… but couldn’t find any way to do so. For example, look at the picture below and see if you can figure out what you need to do to get out of this window.

Windows 8 metro PC settings page

How would you exit from this screen?

If you guessed “move your mouse to the upper-left corner and hover there for a second, then click the thumbnail which will appear,” you’re either psychic or you’ve used Windows 8 before.

Which brings me nicely to my next topic, which is task-switching in Metro.

Task Switching Just Got… Harder?

In the traditionial desktop, you had the taskbar, which was docked to the bottom of the screen. In Metro, you’ve got… something not unlike a taskbar set to auto-hide and locked to the left-hand side of the screen (each screen if you have multiple monitors). To access it, you hover your mouse in the upper-left corner, which will show (after a moment’s delay) a thumbnail of the last Metro app you were in. You will also see a tiny bit of the edge of thumbnails of any other Metro apps that are open (as well as a thumbnail for the traditional desktop) going down along the left hand side of the screen. Moving your mouse down over these slim edges will cause them to pop fully out, at which point it really starts to resemble the taskbar, just with thumbnails and on the left side of the screen.

This isn’t so bad, as far as it goes, but it does take some extra work to switch apps. (Using keyboard shortcuts still works as before, however.) If you were someone who set your taskbar to auto-hide, this might not bother you as much, but it is still cumbersome to use, especially if you’re used to the default taskbar behavior (which was to be visible all the time). I think this is the “make it tablet friendly” mentality showing through again – on a tablet, you don’t want precious screen space taken up with non-active UI elements like a taskbar. But for a PC with a mouse and a big screen (or multiple screens) it is just annoying.

Finally, there’s a big UI “fail” in the form of the “charms bar.” This is the bar that appears on the right side of the screen if you hover your mouse on that side of the screen, or if you hover your mouse in the upper right corner.

This charms bar has a search button and the settings button, among a few other things. It’s not a bad thing by itself, but the given that:

  •  This bar is always on the right side of the screen
  •  The metro UI is only ever on one monitor

This means that if you have multiple monitors, and have a screen to the right of the screen where the Metro UI is, then this “charms bar” is infuriatingly difficult to bring up, because your mouse keeps “sliding” past the edge of the screen and onto the next monitor!!

The whole idea of using the corners of the screen as “hotspots” like this comes from Fitts’s Law, and that’s all fine and good… but when you have multiple monitors, Fitt’s Law doesn’t apply to the side of the screen between two monitors, because it’s not really the “edge” of the screen anymore!

UPDATE: As it turns out, this isn’t quite as bad as I originally thought, because you can also use the corners of any additional monitors as well. In my setup, this meant that I could use the top-right corner of my 2nd monitor (where Fitts’s Law did apply), in addition to the top-right corner of my primary monitor. That said, getting all the way over to the far side of a multi-monitor setup is a lot of mouse movement.

Horizontal vs. Vertical Scrolling

This is a bit of a pet peeve with me, but… In the new Metro start page, and in all Metro apps, there is NO vertical scrolling. Instead, things scroll left to right (horizontally). Which kind of makes sense for a tablet because the natural thing to do is swipe left and right… but it just feels wrong.

Considering that basically every PC in existence has a mouse with a scroll wheel on it – a wheel that scrolls UP and DOWN – the fact that they decided to make the default scrolling in Metro be RIGHT to LEFT is just utterly incomprehensible to me.

The apparent obsession with touch & tablet design in Windows 8 makes me imagine that there was someone at Microsoft screaming at the Windows team, saying, “tablets are going to be the next big thing! We have to work on tablets!!”

…Which, considering the news about Microsoft Surface, doesn’t actually seem that far-fetched.

Final Thoughts

I wanted to like Windows 8 – and I guess I do. It has some differences to be sure, but what new OS doesn’t?

It is going to be a support nightmare. This is not an incremental change – this is significant departure from the conventions of desktop computing that we have all gotten used to over many, many years. Bringing these tablet-style conventions to a desktop OS is, frankly, more than a little jarring. I do not envy the people who will have to support large numbers of office workers when they switch to Windows 8.

There is going to be the inevitable resistance from people who don’t like change of any kind. People like what they know, and Windows 8 changes a lot of things (for better or for worse).

That said, is Windows 8 done well? Is it well executed?

In my opinion, the answer would be… no, not really.

Taken apart, the Metro UI and the traditional desktop are done very well. By itself, the Metro UI would have made a fascinating new OS, which would have gotten a lot of praise and been tried out by lots of curious people. But when you try to mash these two worlds together – the world of the touch screen device, and the world of the mouse-driven desktop PC – you end up with something that is just not as good as either part alone.

Now, is Windows 8 “stay away” worthy, like some said with Windows Vista (or its spiritual predecessor, Windows Me)? No, I don’t think so. It has its oddities, but the desktop is still there, and as I’ve said, it’s easy enough to just treat the Metro UI as a glorified “backstage view” start menu. The other benefits and improvements to the underlying OS and the desktop side of things are well worth it.

All in all I’d say give it a go if you have the chance, but I wouldn’t rush it.

Update: I finally went ahead and upgraded my computer to Windows 8 “for real,” and after using it for a bit, I’ve posted my more in-depth thoughts. Give it a read!

Update 2: After using Windows 8 for even longer, I’ve posted some more thoughts.

Keith’s Anime Reviews: Waiting in the Summer

A bit of a surprise this time: a review of a relatively new anime. I don’t normally catch new anime, I usually only hear about it much, much later, when it’s had a chance to become well known.

Waiting in the Summer (or Ano Natsu de Matteru) is a very interesting series – it starts with a bit of a “wham” episode, throwing a lot of stuff at you all at once. In fact, some of the stuff in the first episode seems like it’s there only to catch your attention and make you stick around for the rest… but that’s not that unusual in and of itself.

What’s unusual is that it throws all this stuff at you in the very first episode, and then takes its sweet time bringing it all to fruition.

The basic plot is about some high-school kids who are making a film for fun during their summer break, and the way that their relationships grow and change during that time. (The “making a movie” part is basically the excuse for them all to hang out together so often; it plays some other roles but is largely irrelevant to the plot after the first few episodes.)

This show actually plays with some of the tropes common to anime in general; for example, after a few episodes you would be forgiven for thinking that this was beginning to look like another “harem” anime series. Likewise, after few more episodes you’d be forgiven for thinking that certain relationship-based tensions (the classic “UST“) were going to be prominent for the rest of the series, and never be resolved until the very end of the show (if that). However, each time the series looks like it’s about to go down one of these roads, it will make an abrupt left turn at the last minute and genuinely surprise you.

For example, like any typical anime, this one has the obligatory “beach” and “festival” episodes – but instead of being filler (as they so often are), both of these were actually highly relevant to the main plot of the series, and in a way that felt genuine & not contrived at all. That’s something that can be hard to pull off effectively.

Suffice to say I was surprised several times – and that’s a hard thing to do to me these days.

So the premise is interesting, and the story is refreshingly different – or at least genuinely surprisingly unpredictable. The animation, on the other hand, is nothing to write home about – it’s certainly quite good, but nothing groundbreaking.

At the moment, this is available only in subbed format – as far as I know, no English dub exists yet – and can be watched (legally!) on Hulu for free.

All in all, this is an entertaining series. It may leave you pining for your adolescence, or it may make you glad you’ve left those days behind you, but either way it will probably surprise you, and maybe even make you smile (or blush – often, as it did with me). If you enjoy anime, I definitely recommend it.

Copyright & Fan Creations

This is a topic near & dear to my heart (I’ll let you guess why).

If you’re a frequent reader of my blog (or follower of me on Twitter), you probably already know that I have some… let’s just say strong feelings about copyright law. You might also know that I enjoy viewing & reading fan works (and may have even created some shameful ones of my own in the distant past – which will remain hidden FOREVER.)

One side effect of this is that over the years I’ve become very familiar with copyright law itself, which is a useful skill to have these days. So, I figured I’d write up a quick guide to help people out a little bit, because let’s face it… copyright law is weird, non-intuitive, and complicated.

(Oh, and just so we can get the annoying stuff out of the way first: I am not a lawyer, and this isn’t “legal advice,” it is just a layman’s opinion/summary. So don’t go out and get yourself in trouble based solely on what I say, and then come around and sue me, OK?)

If you need a quick refresher on this whole copyright process, I highly recommend you go watch C.G.P. Grey’s video on the subject. In fact, I might just embed the whole thing right here!

Everything is Copyrighted

Every original work, no matter how small or insignificant, is protected by copyright (at least in the US) the instant it is created. Everything from that crayon drawing you made when you were 3 to the amazing novel just finished yesterday. EVERYTHING.

The definition of what is covered by copyright is insanely broad – although it originally started out for things like books and paintings, it has evolved to cover pretty much everything you can “create.”

Who is the “Owner” of Copyright?

The basic rule here is, if you created it, you have copyright over it.

Things get complicated if it was a joint project – in general, to be safe, you should assume that everyone who worked on creating it shares the copyright equally (even if nothing was ever written down or formally agreed upon).

If you created the work “for hire,” that is, if you were paid to create it as part of your job, or if you were commissioned specifically to create it, then you DON’T own the copyright – your employer or the person who commissioned the work does.

Any Unauthorized Use is Copyright Infringement

With only a very few exceptions, if you don’t own the copyright to something, then you cannot use it in any way – and if you do, you are violating the copyright of the owner.

Important distinction: when an unauthorized person uses a copyrighted work, that is not “stealing,” it is a violation of the owner’s “copy right,” sort of like censorship is a violation of a person’s “free speech right.”

There are, of course, some exceptions (again, these are taken from US law and may not be applicable where you are). You might have heard of them – they’re called “fair use.”

Fair use, like most legal terms, doesn’t mean what it seems to mean on its face – that if the use is “fair,” then it’s OK to use a copyrighted work without the owner’s permission. Instead, it means that if the use falls within certain defined uses, then it’s OK.

Fair use is unfortunately one of those things that isn’t (and can’t) be narrowly defined – it’s one of those “you’ll know it when you see it” things, which means people end up in court arguing about it a lot of the time. Sadly, that’s just the way it is.

For a full treatment of what fair use is and means, check out Wikipedia’s article on the subject.

It Doesn’t Matter if You Make Money or Not

Well, that’s not entirely 100% accurate – whether you make money from what you are doing is a factor that is considered in determining whether your use falls under “fair use.”

Not earning money from something does not automatically make it “OK’ for you to use a copyrighted work – but in many cases it will affect whether the owner of the copyright decides to spend the time, money, and effort in suing you to stop your unauthorized work.

Some copyright owners will sue everyone who uses their works, no matter what – and unfortunately under the law it is their right to do so.

Others, however, will only go after those people who are profiting from their work or who are doing things that directly (and negatively) affect their own ability to profit from their work.

Hey, I never said this copyright thing was going to make sense.

You Can’t Disclaim It

That is to say, you can’t disclaim copyright infringement – if you are using a copyrighted work without the authorization of the owner, and your use does not fall under “fair use,” then it doesn’t matter what you say – you are still infringing the owner’s copyright, and they can seek legal recourse against you.

For example, I can’t post an entire episode of a TV show online and just say “this isn’t owned by me, I don’t have copyright, it belongs to Such-and-such, Inc.” I’ve still violated their copyright; my disclaimer is technically and legally meaningless.

Let me say that again: there is NO disclaimer you can add to the unauthorized use of copyrighted material that will make it OK.

As an aside: if you think your use falls under “fair use,” but you’re worried that the copyright owner might disagree, a disclaimer might help sway their decision whether or not to sue you, especially if you spell out your reasoning at least a little bit. But it’s not guaranteed, and if it goes to court, it will have absolutely no bearing on anything.

You CAN transform it

I started this article in the context of “fan creations,” and if you’re not quite sure what that means, well… I’m not sure I can help you with that. If you’ve been on the Internet for any length of time, chances are you’ve run across “fan creations.”

The thing is, most “fan creations” fall into another legal category when it comes to copyright, one that not a lot of people talk about. Specifically, I’m talking about transformative works.

This is another one of those areas of law that doesn’t have a narrow definition – another one of those “you’ll know it when you see it” things. But in general, if your work “transforms” the original work into something else, something which is original and not merely a copy, then it’s OK, and your work would not be considered copyright infringement.

To take my example from before, while I can’t post an entire episode of a TV show online without violating copyright, if I take that episode, chop it up and re-arrange parts of it (and leave out other parts), and replace the entire soundtrack (voice and effects) with my own recordings, maybe even mix in some original video of my own, and post that online… then this would probably be considered transformative, and not infringement.

Trademark Law makes everything 20% more confusing

One thing to watch out for is that sometimes trademark law gets mixed in, and that just makes everything more confusing.

For example, you might make a transformative work, remixing a TV show with your own dialog, or making your own works featuring original characters (but based on something that is copyrighted), and you could still run afoul of the law (and have your work taken down from whatever site is hosting it) because the owner has registered a trademark on a character’s name or likeness, or on the name of the world, or on some other aspect of the work.

This is particularly likely if there is any sort of “merchandising” involved – which, if it’s popular, there almost certainly is.

Trademark law is a bit more narrowly defined than copyright law, but it’s also more vigorously defended – because you can lose your trademark if you don’t make an effort to stop people from using it inappropriately, for example.

What about this crazy “Creative Commons” thing?

I’m glad you asked – creative commons is a great way to get around all this legal hullabalu, but it has to be done by the owner, not you (the person making the fan work). You can still release your own works under a creative commons license, though.

I’ll be talking about Creative Commons in more detail in a future article, so stay tuned for that.

The Bottom Line (or, tl;dr)

Copyright law (and its close sibling, trademark law) is a complicated subject, but one that anyone who does fan works of any kind should at least have a basic understanding of. It’s extraordinarily easy to violate copyright (even unintentionally), but at the same time, you don’t actually get in trouble for it unless the owner chooses to pursue you in court. This is because copyright law, unlike say murder or theft, is a civil, not criminal matter. (Well, at least it WAS… until the DMCA came along and changed that for some cases.)

If you’re creating almost any kind of fan work, you’re probably skirting the boundaries of copyright infringement, depending on how close your work mirrors the original work – and it doesn’t matter how many disclaimers you paste all over it. If it violates copyright, it violates copyright, no matter what your disclaimers say. This is – for better or for worse – the state of copyright law (at least in the US and any other countries with similar laws).

The rule of thumb I guess would be to try to be inspired by the works you are a fan of, rather than just copy them outright. Use that inspiration to create your own works. And if you must do stuff that straddles the border between violating copyright and not, then for goodness sakes don’t try to make money off of it… because that’s just an incentive for the copyright owner to try to stop you (sue you).

Finally, I don’t want this to discourage anyone from creating fan stuff – frankly, the world needs MORE creative works, not less, and I’m not trying to scare people with legal talk. Honestly, I personally think copyright law needs a bit of an overhaul. But until then, we’re stuck with the laws we do have, and being ignorant of them is no good either, so I hope this at least sheds a little light on the issue for everyone who reads it.

Still Blogging

There’s a reason I don’t use services like Tumblr (or LiveJournal, or Blogger, or any of a dozen other similar “free” services) and instead still post things here on my own blog – and that is: I own this blog, but I don’t own Tumblr*.

Now, this may not – scratch that, this will not apply to everyone, but for me, my words are my “product,” so to speak. They are the thing I spend time creating, and they are important to me – important enough that I would not want them to be lost.

Whenever I’m trying to decide whether to use some new web-based service (at least, the “free” ones), I ask myself, “if this service disappeared tomorrow, would it be a huge loss for me?” If the answer is “yes,” then I either won’t use the service, or I will only post low-importance things there (or I’ll duplicate the content elsewhere).

Naturally, there are some “free” services that I trust sufficiently to get over the “what if it disappeared” hurdle – things like Gmail, to name one example. (Though that doesn’t stop me from keeping a local, cached backup copy, just in case!)

Anyway, these are just some of my thoughts – and of course everyone else’s criteria will differ from mine. But it’s worth thinking about before you commit to creating a lot of content with whatever the next “cool” new web service is!

* This goes for any paid service, really. If I pay for it, I generally expect not to be left in the cold. With a free service, you can’t really expect anything.

Thoughts about “Occupy Wall Street”

I’ve been thinking about the “Occupy Wall Street” movement a lot over the last few months, watching how things played out. I’ve been particularly interested since the movement was happening a scant 30 miles to my east (not quite “in my backyard,” but close enough).

At first it started with curiosity – “will this movement grow large enough to get any attention?” But then it moved to sympathy and finally to understanding.

I watched as TV and Internet news outlets complained that Occupy Wall Street had no “clear message” or “demands,” and at first I wondered if this really was a problem – but then I realized that the people complaining about “no message” were completely missing the point.

The message of Occupy Wall Street isn’t going to be found on any sign, or really in anything that any one person says. Instead, the message is the fact that the movement exists at all.

That a very large group of people have managed to organize mass protests – both here in New York City as well as around the world – is more of a message than any sign, banner, or chant you might hear at any one particular movement site.

These people – the ordinary, everyday people who showed up to the Occupy movement for days or even weeks and months – are very, very, very frustrated and angry. They are protesting like this because they think this is their only choice, the only option they have left, since all of the more normal and regular options one might use (voting, writing to Congress, etc.) have proven to be ineffective. More specifically, the other options these people have to express and influence social/political ideas have not just become ineffective, they have been totally subverted.

To many of these people, the current political climate must feel like a bad dream, one of those awful nightmares where you are in trouble and screaming for help but your voice isn’t working and no one can hear you.

This is why they’ve turned to protests like this. This is what I think Occupy Wall Street is all about. The many different things you’ll see on protest signs & so forth at any given “Occupy” movement site are just the symptoms of a bigger underlying problem. It’s not the things themselves, but the fact that these things were allowed to happen that is the problem. It’s the disconnect between ordinary people (e.g., the middle class) and politics that is the problem.

So if you’re a politician looking for some “action items” to take away from the Occupy Wall Street protests, let me offer this: listen to your constituents – I mean really listen – and remember that laws need to not just be fair, they need to feel fair – because when they aren’t, people really get mad.